Home » Uncategorized » FDA approves Novartis pancreas cancer drug

pancreasNovartis AG’s cancer drug Afinitor has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for a rare type of pancreatic cancer that has few treatment options.

More information:

http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/05/06/us-novartis-cancer-drug-idUSTRE7456B520110506

 

General Information about Afinitor

Afinitor is an inhibitor of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin), a serine-threonine kinase, downstream of the PI3K/AKT pathway. The mTOR pathway is dysregulated in several human cancers. Everolimus binds to an intracellular protein, FKBP-12, resulting in an inhibitory complex formation and inhibition of mTOR kinase activity. Inhibition of mTOR by everolimus has been shown to reduce cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and glucose uptake in in vitro and/or in vivo studies.

Afinitor is specifically indicated for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma after failure of treatment with sunitinib or sorafenib.

Afinitor is supplied as a 5 mg or 10 mg tablet designed for oral administration. The recommended initial dose of the drug is 10 mg, to be taken once daily at the same time every day, either with or without food. Afinitor tablets should be swallowed whole with a glass of water; they should not be chewed or crushed.

Source: http://www.medilexicon.com/drugs/afinitor.php

More information about Afinitor (Everolimus)

Everolimus (RAD-001) is the 40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl) derivative of sirolimus and works similarly to sirolimus as an mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor.

It is currently used as an immunosuppressant to prevent rejection of organ transplants. Much research has also been conducted on everolimus and other mTOR inhibitors for use in a number of cancers.

It is marketed by Novartis under the tradenames Zortress (USA) and Certican (Europe and other countries) in transplantation medicine, and Afinitor in oncology.

Trials, Approvals and indications

The FDA has approved everolimus for the treatment of advanced kidney cancer on March 30, 2009 and for organ rejection prophylaxis on April 22, 2010.

June 2010: A Phase II trial reports it is effective in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis. In Oct 2010 the FDA approved its use in SEGA not suitable for surgery.

As of October 2010, Phase III trials are under way in breast cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (NET), and lymphoma.

May 2011 FDA approval for pancreatic NET.

Mechanism

In a similar fashion to other mTOR inhibitors its effect is solely on the mTORC1 protein and not on the mTORC2 protein. This can lead to a hyper-activation of the kinase AKT via inhibition on the mTORC1 negative feedback loop while not inhibiting the mTORC2 positive feedback to AKT. This AKT elevation can lead to longer survival in some cell types.

Role in heart transplantation

Everolimus may have a role in heart transplantation as it has been shown to reduce chronic allograft vasculopathy in such transplants. It also may have a similar role to sirolimus in kidney and other transplants.

Because hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia have been reported, monitoring of blood lipid level is recommended.

Use in vascular stents

Everolimus is used in drug-eluting coronary stents as an immunosuppressant to prevent restenosis. Abbott Vascular produces an everolimus-eluting stent called the Xience V, which is approved for sale and available in Europe. It utilizes the Multi-Link Vision cobalt chromium stent platform and Novartis’ everolimus. The product is also currently an investigational device in the United States and Japan. It is also available under a private-label version called the PROMUS Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System and it is currently available in most major European and Asia-Pacific markets.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Everolimus

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